Spanish cooking has popular roots. It is the people's cuisine. Most of it is down-to-earth, uncomplicated food, based on the ingredients available locally or the crops grown regionally. Mountains run through Spain in several directions, acting as natural barriers to communication and making transportation difficult until the last half of the 20th century. This is one of the reasons why cooking differs so much from region to region.
Many dishes are prepared today using the same cooking methods and ingredients as they were two or three hundred years ago. Other dishes sprung up from European and American influences and were adapted to the Spanish taste. One thing is for sure, food in Spain is fresh, abundant and full of taste and the Spanish love their food dearly.
Ingredients & Typical Foods
The two basic ingredients of all Spanish food are olive oil and garlic. However, because Spain has very distinct geographical regions, settled by different ethnic and cultural groups, and because the weather varies from province to province, the regional cuisines are very different. Many times the only common ingredients are olive oil and garlic!
Here is a list of typical ingredients and foods:
- Olive oil - Spanish recipes either call for olive oil or lard, mainly olive oil. Extra virgin olive oil is worth the added expense. Spain is a leading producer of olive oil and olives are grown all over the south of Spain. Learn Tips for Frying with Spanish Olive Oil.
- Ham - or as the Spanish say, jamón is a very prized food. Spaniards take their ham very seriously and will pay a high price for top-quality ham. There is even a denomination of origin for certain types of ham! So proud are Spaniards of their ham, that there are several museums of ham, or museo de jamon. You will see different types on menus or in supermarkets, but typically it will be jamón serrano or ham from the sierra or mountains. Learn all about jamón español in our introduction!
- Fish and Seafood - Because Spain is located on the Iberian Peninsula and is surrounded on three sides by water, fresh seafood is always plentiful in the markets and is eaten daily. Everything from halibut to shrimp, and even octopus and baby eels are common to see in the markets and on menus.
- Cheeses - Wonderful cheeses of every type can be eaten in Spain. Spanish cheeses are made from sheep, cow, goat milk and mixed. Types range from aged cheeses, such as the manchego variety from La Mancha, to the soft creamy cheeses such as tetilla from Galicia and everything in between. There are even blue cheeses that mature in limestone caves, such as Cabrales. Cheese can be eaten as a tapa as well as during meals and for dessert.
- Sausages - Spanish love sausage, in particular their chorizo, a pork sausage made with paprika. Again, there are many types of chorizo, from fresh and soft to smoked and aged. Every local market offers a variety and Spanish families often make their own in the winter and hang them in the cellar or the attic to dry.
- Beef, Lamb and Pork - All three meats are common and can be roasted, grilled over the coals or sautéed in a sauce. Generally, Spanish prefer veal and suckling lamb and pig. Roasted meats are a popular dish for holidays and festive occasions.
- Eggs - Eggs are eaten daily either fried, deviled, or in a Spanish omelet, called a tortilla espanola in Spain. They are an essential part of many recipes, including desserts and salads.
- Chicken - Chicken is very popular and is eaten regularly. It is prepared in every way, but mostly commonly is fried, roasted or stewed.
- Fruits and Vegetables - Spanish eat lots of fresh fruit as snacks or as the last course to their meals. A fresh fruit bowl sits in every kitchen. Simple salads and sautéed vegetables are eaten every day. Popular dishes often include eggplant and zucchini.
- Legumes - Beans of all types are eaten regularly. Beans and chickpeas (garbanzo beans) have been a staple of the Peninsula for centuries and rivaled bread as the most commonly eaten food!
- Nuts - Spain is one of the top producers of almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts. Almond-based and milk-based desserts are very common. Turron, the almond nougat candy eaten at Christmas is probably the best-known of these sweets. Many recipes of Arabic origin contain crushed almonds. Hazelnuts, not almonds are the most popular nut to be mixed with chocolate.
- Herbs and Spices - Garlic, onions and herbs such as oregano, rosemary and thyme are used, but garlic more than the others.
Cocido, olla, pote, guiso, estofado or escudella are the Spanish terms for stew. This is one dish that could be called characteristic of Spain, although each region has its own version. Spanish do not only stew, they roast,fry and saute many foods. It is not as common to bake or broil, although they do grill meats on a metal plate or on a charcoal grill.
As the Spanish say to wish everyone a good meal, "Buen provecho!"